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1. 1**Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** 04:36:37 Some Figures Courtesy Addison Wesley 2. 2 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 CONTENT • Fundamentals of **Vibrations** • Single degree-of-freedom systems • Free **Vibrations** • Harmonic forcing functions • General forcing functions • Two degree-of-freedom systems • Free **Vibrations** • Forced **Vibrations** • Multi degree-of-freedom systems • Free **Vibrations** • Forced **Vibrations** 04:36:37 3. 3 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction **Mechanical** **Vibrations** • • • Defined as oscillatory motion of bodies in response to disturbance. Oscillations occur due to the presence of a restoring force **Vibrations** are everywhere: • • • • • Vehicles: residual imbalance of engines, locomotive wheels Rotating machinery: Turbines, pumps, fans, reciprocating machines Musical instruments Excessive **Vibrations** can have detrimental effects: • • • • • • Human body: eardrums, vocal cords, walking and running Noise Loosening of fasteners Tool chatter Fatigue failure Discomfort When vibration frequency coincides with natural frequency, resonance occurs. 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 4. 4 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** • Aeolian, wind-induced or vortex-induced vibration of the Tacoma Narrows bridge on 7 November 1940 caused it to resonate resulting in catastrophic failure. Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse Video 04:36:37 5. 5 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** • Millennium Bridge, London: Pedestrians, in reaction to lateral motion of the bridge, altered their gait and started behaving in concert to induce the structure to resonate further (forced periodic excitation): Video link 04:36:37 6. 6 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Fundamentals • In simple terms, a vibratory system involves the transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and vice-versa in alternating fashion. • • When there is a mechanism for dissipating energy (damping) the oscillation gradu**all**y diminishes. In general, a vibratory system consists of three basic components: • • • A means of storing potential energy (spring, gravity) A means of storing kinetic energy (mass, inertial component) A means to dissipate vibrational energy (damper) 04:36:37 7. 7 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Fundamentals • • This can be observed with a pendulum: At position 1: the kinetic energy is zero and the potential energy is mgl(1 ? cos ? ) • • • At position 2: the kinetic energy is at its maximum At position 3: the kinetic energy is again zero and the potential energy at its maximum. In this case the oscillation will eventu**all**y stop due to aerodynamic drag and pivot friction ? HEAT 04:36:37 8. 8 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Degrees of Freedom • The number of degrees of freedom : number of independent coordinates required to completely determine the motion of **all** parts of the system at any time. • Examples of single degree of freedom systems: 04:36:37 9. 9 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Degrees of Freedom • Examples of two degree of freedom systems: 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 10. 10 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Degrees of Freedom • Examples of three degree of freedom systems: 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 11. 11 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Discrete and continuous systems • Many practical systems sm**all** and large or structures can be describe with a finite number of DoF. These are referred to as discrete or lumped parameter systems • Some large structures (especi**all**y with continuous elastic elements) have an infinite number of DoF These are referred to as continuous or distributed systems. • In most cases, for practical reasons, continuous systems are approximated as discrete systems with sufficiently large numbers lumped masses, springs and dampers. This equates to a large number of degrees of freedom which affords better accuracy. 04:36:37 12. 12 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Classification of Vibration • Free and Forced **Vibrations** • • • Free vibration: Initial disturbance, system left to vibrate without influence of external forces. Forced vibration: Vibrating system is stimulated by external forces. If excitation frequency coincides with natural frequency, resonance occurs. Undamped and damped vibration • • • Undamped vibration: No dissipation of energy. In many cases, damping is (negligibly) sm**all** (steel 1 – 1.5%). However sm**all**, damping has critical importance when analysing systems at or near resonance. Damped vibration: Dissipation of energy occurs - vibration amplitude decays. Linear and nonlinear vibration • Linear vibration: Elements (mass, spring, damper) behave linearly. Superposition holds - double excitation level = double response level, mathematical solutions well defined. • Nonlinear vibration: One or more element behave in nonlinear fashion (examples). Superposition does not hold, and analysis technique not clearly defined. 04:36:37 13. 13 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Classification of Vibration • Deterministic and Random **Vibrations** • • Deterministic vibration: Can be described by implicit mathematical function as a function of time. Random vibration: Cannot be predicted. Process can be described by statistical means. 04:36:37 14. 14 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Vibration Analysis • • • • Input (excitation) and output (response) are wrt time Response depend on initial conditions and external forces Most practical systems very complex – (mathematical) modelling requires simplification Procedure: ? ? ? ? Mathematical modelling Derivation / statement of governing equations Solving of equations for specific boundary conditions and external forces Interpretation of solution(s) 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 15. 15 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Vibration Analysis 04:36:37 Example (1.3 Ed.3) V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 16. 16 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Spring Elements • • Pure spring element considered to have negligible mass and damping Force proportional to spring deflection (relative motion between ends): F = k ?x • For linear springs, the potential energy stored is: U = 1 k ( ?x ) 2 • Actual springs sometimes behave in nonlinear fashion • Important to recognize the presence and significance (magnitude) of nonlinearity • Desirable to generate linear estimate 04:36:37 2 17. 17 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Spring Elements • Equivalent spring constant. • • Eg: cantilever beam: Mass of beam assumed negligible cf lumped mass Deflection at free end: mgl 3 ?= 3EI • Stiffness (Force/defln): k= • mg 3EI = 3 ? l This procedure can be applied for various geometries and boundary conditions. (see appendix) 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 18. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 18 Spring Elements • Equivalent spring constant. • Springs in par**all**el: w =mg=k? +k 2 ? 1 w=mg=keq? • where keq =k1 + k2 • In general, for n springs in par**all**el: i=n keq = ? ki i=1 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 19. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 19 Spring Elements • Equivalent spring constant. • Springs in series: ?t =?1 + ?2 • Both springs are subjected to the same force: mg = k1? 1 = k2? 2 mg=keq? t • Combining the above equations: k1? 1 = k2? 2 = keq? t ? 1= keq? t k 04:36:37 1 and ? 2 = keq? t k2 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 20. 20 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Spring Elements • Springs in series (cont’d): • Substituting into first eqn: ?t = • keq? t k1 + keq? t k2 Dividing by keq?t throughout: 1 1 1 = + keq k1 k2 • For n springs in series: 1 i=n ? 1 ? =? ? ? keq i=1 ? ki ? 04:36:37 21. 21 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Spring Elements • Equivalent spring constant. • • When springs are connected to rigid components such as pulleys and gears, the energy equivalence principle must be used. Example: Example (1.10 Ed.3) 04:36:37 22. 22 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Mass / Inertia Elements • • • • • Mass or inertia element assumed rigid (lumped mass) • Modelling with lumped mass elements. Example: assume frame mass is negligible cf mass of floors. Its energy (kinetic) is proportional to velocity. Force ? mass * acceleration Work = force * displacement Work done on mass is stored as Kinetic Energy 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 23. 23 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Mass / Inertia Elements • Equivalent mass - example: • The velocities of the mass elements can be written as: l2 x x &2 = &1 l1 • and l3 x x &3 = &1 l1 To determine the equivalent mass at position l1: x x & eq = & 1 04:36:37 24. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 24 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Mass / Inertia Elements • Equivalent mass – example (cont’d) • Equating the kinetic energies: 1m & 2 x 2 1 1 • 1 + 2 m2& 2 + 2 m3& 3 = 2 meq& eq x2 1 x2 1 x2 Substituting for the velocity terms: meq 04:36:37 2 2 ?l ? ?l ? = m1 + ? 2 ÷ m2 + ? 3 ÷ m3 ? l1 ? ? l1 ? 25. 25 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Damping Elements • • • Absorbs energy from vibratory system ? vibration amplitude decays. Damping element considered to have no mass or elasticity Real damping systems very complex, damping modelled as: • Viscous damping: • • • • Based on viscous fluid flowing through gap or orifice. Damping force ? relative velocity between ends Eg: film between sliding surfaces, flow b/w piston & cylinder, flow thru orifice, film around journal bearing. Coulomb (dry Friction) damping: • • 04:36:37 Based on friction between unlubricated surfaces Damping force is constant and opposite the direction of motion 26. 26 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Damping Elements • Hysteretic (material or solid) damping: • • 04:36:37 Based on plastic deformation of materials (energy loss due to slippage b/w grains) Energy lost due to hysteresis loop in force-deflection (stress-strain) curve of element when load is applied: 27. 27 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Damping Elements • Equivalent damping element: • 04:36:37 Combinations of damping elements can be replace by equivalent damper using same procedures as for spring and mass/inertia elements. 28. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Damping Elements FORD AU IRS 2 1 0 -2 Force [KN] 28 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Velocity [m/s] 04:36:37 0.5 1 1.5 2 29. 29 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction Harmonic Motion • Harmonic motion: simplest form of periodic motion (deterministic). • • Pure sinusoidal (co-sinusoidal) motion • The motion of mass m is described by: Eg: Scotch-yoke mechanism rotating with angular velocity ? - simple harmonic motion: x = Asin( ? ) = A sin( ?t ) • Its velocity and acceleration are: dx = ? A cos( ?t ) dt and d 2x dt 2 04:36:37 = ? ? 2 A sin( ?t ) = ? ? 2 x V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 30. 30 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion • • • 04:36:37 Sinusoidal motion emanates from cyclic motion The rotating vector generates a sinusoidal and a co-sinusoidal components along mutu**all**y perpendicular axes. Can be represented by a vector (OP) with a magnitude, angular velocity (frequency) and phase. 31. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 31 Harmonic Motion • Often convenient to represent sinusoidal and co-sinusoidal components (mutu**all**y perpendicular) in complex number format • • Where a and b denote the sinusoidal (x) and co-sinusoidal (y) components a and b = real and imaginary parted of vector X 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 32. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 32 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion Definition of terms: • Cycle: motion of body from equilibrium position ? extreme position ? equilibrium position ? extreme position in other direction ? equilibrium position . • • Amplitude: Maximum value of motion from equilibrium. (Peak – Peak = 2 x amplitude) Period: Time taken to complete one cycle ?= ? = circular frequency • Frequency: number of cycles per unit time. f = ? : radians/s 04:36:37 f Hertz (cycles /s) 1 ? = ? 2? 2? ? 33. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 33 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion • Phase angle: the difference in angle (lead or lag) by which two harmonic motions of the same frequency reach their corresponding value (maxima, minima, zero up-cross, zero down-cross) 04:36:37 34. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 34 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion • Phase angle: the difference in angle (lead or lag) by which two harmonic motions of the same frequency reach their corresponding value (maxima, minima, zero up-cross, zero down-cross) 04:36:37 35. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 35 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion • Natural frequency: the frequency at which a system vibrates without external forces after an initial disturbance. The number of natural frequencies always matches the number of DoF. • Beats: the effect produced by adding two harmonic motions with similar (close) frequencies. x1 = A sin( ?t ) x2 = A sin( ?t + ??t ) xt = x1 + x2 = A [sin( ?t ) + sin( ?t + ??t )] M +N M ?N cos 2 2 ??t ? ? ??t ? xt = 2 A sin ? ?t + cos ? ? ÷ ÷ 2 ? ? ? 2 ? Since sin M + sin N = 2 sin Eg: ?=40 Hz and ?= -0.075 • 04:36:37 In **Mechanical** vibratory systems, beats occur when the (harmonic) excitation (forcing) frequency is close to the natural frequency. 36. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 36 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic Motion • • • Octave: doubling of any quantity. Used mainly for frequency. Octave band (frequency): maximum is double of minimum. Eg: 64 – 128 Hz, 1000 – 2000 Hz. Decibel: defined as 10 x log(power ratio) ?P? dB = 10Log ? ÷ ? P0 ? In electrical systems (as in **Mechanical** vibratory systems) power is proportional to the value squared hence: ? X ? dB = 20Log ? ÷ ? X0 ? 04:36:37 37. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • • Many vibratory systems not harmonic but often periodic Any periodic function can be represented by the Fourier series – infinite sum of sinusoids and co-sinusoids. ao + a1 cos( ?t ) + a2 cos( 2?t ) + ........ 2 + b1 sin( ?t ) + b2 sin( 2?t ) + ....... x( t ) = ao ? = + ? [an cos( n?t ) + bn sin( n?t )] 2 n =1 • To obtain an and bn the series is multiplied by cos(n?t) and sin(n?t) respectively and integrated over one period. 04:36:37 38. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 38 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • Example: 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 39. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 39 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • Example: 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 40. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 40 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • As for simple harmonic motion, Fourier series can be expressed with complex numbers: ei?t = cos( ?t ) + i sin( ?t ) e ?i?t = cos( ?t ) ? i sin( ?t ) ei?t + e ?i?t cos( ?t ) = 2 ei?t ? e ?i?t sin( ?t ) = 2i • The Fourier series: ao ? x( t ) = + ? [an cos( n? t ) + bn sin( n? t )] 2 n =1 Can be written as: ? ei? t ? e?i? t ? ? ao ? ? ? ei? t + e ?i? t ? ? ? x( t ) = + ? ?an ? ÷+ bn ? ÷? ÷ ? ÷ 2 n =1 ? ? 2 2i ? ? ?? ? ? ? 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 41. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 41 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • Defining the complex Fourier coefficients cn = • an ? ibn 2 and cn ?1 = The (complex) Fourier series is simplified to: x( t ) = ? ? n =?? 04:36:37 cn ein?t an + ibn 2 42. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 42 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis ao ? x( t ) = + ? [an cos( n? t ) + bn sin( n? t )] 2 n =1 • • The Fourier series is made-up of harmonics. Their amplitudes and phases are defined as: 2 2 An = ( an + bn ) ?b ? ?n = a tan ? n ÷ ? an ? 04:36:37 harmonics 43. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** - Introduction 43 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Harmonic (Fourier) Analysis • The amplitudes (magnitudes) and phases of the harmonics can be plotted as a function of frequency to form the frequency spectrum of spectral diagram: An 04:36:37 44. 44 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF • • • Rec**all**: Free **Vibrations** ? system given initial disturbance and oscillates free of external forces. Undamped: no decay of vibration amplitude Single DoF: • • • • mass treated as rigid, limped (particle) Elasticity idealised by single spring only one natural frequency. The equation of motion can be derived using • • • • Newton’s second law of motion D’Alembert’s Principle, The principle of virtual displacements and, The principle of conservation of energy. 04:36:37 45. 45 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • Using Newton’s second law of motion to develop the equation of motion. 1. Select suitable coordinates 2. Establish (static) equilibrium position 3. Draw free-body-diagram of mass 4. Use FBD to apply Newton’s second law of motion: “Rate of change of momentum = applied force” F( t ) = As m is constant F( t ) = m For rotational motion d ? dx( t ) ? ?m ÷ dt ? dt ? d 2 x( t ) dt 2 = mx && M ( t ) = J && ? For the free, undamped single DoF system 04:36:37 F( t ) = ?kx = mx && or mx + kx = 0 && V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 46. 46 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF Principle of virtual displacements: • “When a system in equilibrium under the influence of forces is given a virtual displacement. The total work done by the virtual forces = 0” • Displacement is imaginary, infinitesimal, instantaneous and compatible with the system • When a virtual displacement dx is applied, the sum of work done by the spring force and the inertia force are set to zero: ?( kx )? x ? ( mx )? x = 0 && • Since dx ? 0 the equation of motion is written as: 04:36:37 kx + mx = 0 && 47. 47 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF Principle of conservation of energy: • • • No energy is lost due to friction or other energy-dissipating mechanisms. If no work is done by external forces, the system total energy = constant For **Mechanical** vibratory systems: KE + PE = cons tan t or d ( KE + PE ) = 0 dt • Since 1 KE = mx 2 & 2 then and d ?1 2 1 2? & ? mx + kx ÷ = 0 dt ? 2 2 ? or mx + kx = 0 && 04:36:37 1 PE = kx 2 2 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 48. 48 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF Vertical mass-spring system: 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 49. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 49 Free undamped vibration single DoF Vertical mass-spring system: mg • From the free body diagram:, using Newton’s second law of motion: mx = ? k( x + ? st ) + mg && sin ce k? st = mg mx + kx = 0 && • ? • Note that this is the same as the eqn. of motion for the horizontal mass-spring system ? if x is measured from the static equilibrium position, gravity (weight) can be ignored 04:36:37 be also derived by the other three alternative methods. This can V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 50. 50 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF • • The solution to the differential eqn. of motion. As we anticipate oscillatory motion, we may propose a solution in the form: x( t ) = Acos( ?n t ) + B sin( ?n t ) or x( t ) = Aei?nt + Be ?i?nt alternatively,if we let s = ±i?n x( t ) = C e ± st • By substituting for x(t) in the eqn. of motion: C( ms 2 + k ) = 0 sin ce c ? 0, ms 2 + k = 0 and s = ±i?n = ± or 04:36:37 ?n = k m ¬ Characteristic equation k m ¬ roots = eigenvalues 51. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 51 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF • • The solution to the differential eqn. of motion. Applying the initial conditions to the general solution: x( t =0 ) = A = x0 & ( t =0 ) = B?n = & 0 x x • The solution becomes: x( t ) = Acos( ?n t ) + B sin( ?n t ) initial displacement initial velocity x( t ) = x0 cos( ?n t ) + &o x sin( ?n t ) ?n ? x 2 ?& ? if we let A0 = ? x0 + ? 0 ÷ ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ? x( t ) = A0 sin( ?n t + ? ) 1 2? 2 • ?x ? ? and ? = a tan ? 0 n ÷ then x ? &o ? This describes motion of harmonic oscillator: • • • Symmetric about equilibrium position Thru equilibrium: velocity is maximum & acceleration is zero At peaks and v**all**eys, velocity is zero and acceleration is maximum ? ?n = ?(k/m) is the natural frequency 04:36:37 52. 52 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • Note: for vertical systems, the natural frequency can be written as: ?n = k m sin ce k = ?n = 04:36:37 g ? st mg ? st or fn = 1 g 2? ? st V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 53. 53 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • • Torsional vibration. Approach same as for translational system. Laboratory exercise. 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 54. 54 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • • Compound pendulum. • Assume rigid body ? single DoF Given an initial angular displacement or velocity, system will oscillate due to gravitational acceleration. Restoring torque: mgd sin ? ? Equation of motion : J o&& + mgd sin ? = 0 ? ¬ nonlinear2nd order ODE Linearity is approximated if sin ? ? ? Therefore : J o&& + mgd? = 0 ? Natural frequency : ?n = 04:36:37 mgd Jo V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 55. 55 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF Natural frequency : mgd ?n = Jo sin ce for a simple pendulum g ?n = l J 2 Then, l = o and since J o = mko then md 2 ko gd ?n = and l = 2 d ko 2 2 Applying the par**all**el axis theorem ko = kG + d 2 2 kG l= +d d Let l = GA + d = OA ?n = g 2 ko / d = g g = l OA 2 ? kG ? 04:36:37 The location A ? GA = ÷ is the " centre of percussion ?? ? d ÷ ? ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 56. 56 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • • Stability. Some systems may have inherent instability 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 57. 57 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • • • Stability. Some systems may have inherent instability When the bar is deflected by ?, The spring force is : 2kl sin ? The gravitational force thru G is : mg The inertial moment about O due to the angular acceleration && is : ? 2 ml && J o&& = ? ? 3 The eqn. of motion is written as : ml 2 && l ? + ( 2kl sin ? ) l cos ? ? mg sin ? = 0 3 2 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 58. 58 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF For sm**all** oscillations, sin? = ? and cos ? = 1 .Therefore ml 2 mgl ? + 2kl 2? ? ? =0 3 2 or ? 12kl 2 ? 3mgl ? && + ? ? ÷? = 0 2 ? ÷ 2ml ? ? The solution to the eqn. of motion depends of the sign of ( ) (1) If ( ) >0, the resulting motion is oscillatory (simple harmonic) with a natural frequency ? 12kl 2 ? 3mgl ? ?n = ? ÷ ? ÷ 2ml 2 ? ? 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 59. 59 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF 2 ? ? && + ? 12kl ? 3mgl ÷? = 0 ? ? ÷ 2ml 2 ? ? (2) If ( ) =0, the eqn. of motion reduces to: && ? =0 The solution is obtained by int egrating twice yielding : ? ( t ) = C1t + C2 & & Applying initial conditions ? ( t = 0 ) = ?0 and ? ( t = 0 ) = ?0 & ? ( t ) = ?0 t + ?0 Which shows a linear increase of angular displ. at cons tan t velocity. & And if ? = 0 the bar remains in static equilibrium at ? ( t ) = ? 0 04:36:37 0 60. 60 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF ? 12kl 2 ? 3mgl ? && ? + ? ÷? = 0 2 ? ÷ 2ml ? ? (3) If ( ) < 0, we define: ? 12kl 2 ? 3mgl ? ? 3mgl ? 12kl 2 ? ? = ?? ÷= ? ÷ 2 2 2ml 2ml ? ? ? ? The solution of the eq.of motion is : ? ( t ) = B1e? t + B2 e ?? t & & Applying initial conditions ? ( t = 0 ) = ?0 and ? ( t = 0 ) = ?0 1 ? & & ( ??0 + ?0 ) e? t + ( ??0 ? ?0 ) e??t ? ? 2? ? which shows that ? ( t ) increases exp onenti**all**y with time and is therefore unstable because the restoring moment ( springs ) ?( t ) = is less than the non ? restoring moment due to gravity. 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 61. 61 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free undamped vibration single DoF • • Rayleigh’s Energy method to determine natural frequency Rec**all**: Principle of conservation of energy: T1 + U1 = T2 + U 2 • Where T1 and U1 represent the energy components at the time when the kinetic energy is at its maximum (? U1=0) and T2 and U2 the energy components at the time when the potential energy is at its maximum (? T2=0) T1 + 0 = 0 + U 2 • For harmonic motion Tmax = U max 04:36:37 62. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 62 Free undamped vibration single DoF • Rayleigh’s Energy method to determine natural frequency: Application example: • Find minimum length of mercury u-tube manometer tube so that f n of fluid column < 2 Hz. • • Determine Umax and Tmax: Umax = potential energy of raised fluid column + potential energy of depressed fluid column. U = mg x x + mg 2 raised 2 depressed = ( Ax? ) x x + ( Ax? ) 2 raised 2 depressed = A? x 2 A : cross sec tional area and ? : specific weight of mercury • Kinetic energy: 04:36:37 1 T = ( mass of mercury col ) vel 2 2 1 ? Al? ? 2 = ? & x 2? g ÷ ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 63. 63 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free undamped vibration single DoF • Rayleigh’s Energy method to determine natural frequency: Application example: • If we assume harmonic motion: x( t ) = X cos( 2? f n t ) where X is the max . displacement & t ) = 2? f n X sin( 2? f n t ) where 2? f n X is the max . velocity x( • Substituting for the maximum displacement and velocity: U max = A? X 2 U max = Tmax fn = • and ? 1 ? 2g ? ? ÷ 2? ? l ? Minimum length of column: 04:36:37 1 ? Al? ? Tmax = ? ( 2? f n ) 2 X 2 2? g ÷ ? 1 ? Al? ? A? X 2 = ? ( 2? f n ) 2 X 2 2? g ÷ ? 1 ? 2g ? ? ÷ ? 1.5 Hz 2? ? l ? l ? 0.221 m fn = V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 64. 64 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • Rec**all**: viscous damping force ? velocity: F = ?cx & c = damping cons tan t or coefficient [ Ns / m ] Applying Newton' s sec ond law of motion to obtain the eqn.of motion : mx = ? cx ? kx && & or mx + cx + kx = 0 && & If the solution is assumed to take the form : x( t ) = Ce st where s = ±i?n then : & t ) = sCe st and &x( t ) = s 2Ce st x( & Substituting for x, & and && in the eqn.of motion x x ms 2 + cs + k = 0 The root of the characteristic eqn. are : 2 ?c ± c 2 ? 4mk c c ? ?k? s1,2 = =? ± ? ? ÷ ?? ÷ 2m 2m 2m ? ? m ? ? The two solutions are : x1 ( t ) = C1e s1t 04:36:37 and x 2 ( t ) = C 2 e s 2t V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 65. 65 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • The general solution to the Eqn. Of motion is: x( t ) = C1e s1t + C2 e s2t or x( t ) = C1 ? ? 2 ? c ? c ? ? k ?? ?? + ? ÷ ?? ÷?t 2m ? 2m ? ? m ? ? ? ? e? + C2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary cons tan ts det er min ed from the initial conditions . 04:36:37 ? ? 2 ? c ? c ? ? k ?? ? ? ?? ÷ ?? ÷?t 2m ? 2m ? ? m ? ? ? ? e? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 66. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 66 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • Critical damping (cc): value of c for which the radical in the general solution is zero: 2 ? cc ? ? k ? ? ÷ ? ? ÷= 0 ? 2m ? ? m ? • k = 2m?n = 2 km m cc = 2m or Damping ratio (?): damping coefficient : critical damping coefficient. ? = c cc c c cc = = ?? n 2m cc 2m or The roots can be re ? written : 2 ( ) c ? c ? ?k? 2 s1,2 = ? ± ? ÷ ? ? ÷ = ?? ± ? ? 1 ? n 2m ? 2m ? ? m ? And the solution becomes : ? ?? + ? 2 ?1 ?? t ? ÷ n ? ? x( t ) = C1e • + C2 ? ?? ? ? 2 ?1 ?? t ? ÷ n ? ? e The response x(t) depends on the roots s 1 and s2 ? the behaviour of the system is dependent on the damping ratio ?. 04:36:37 67. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 67 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping ? ?? + ? 2 ?1 ?? t ? ÷ n ? x( t ) = C1e? • + C2 2 ? ? ? ?? ? ? ?1 ÷?n t ? e? When ? <1, the system is underdamped. (?2-1) is negative and the roots can be written as: ( ) s1 = ?? + i 1 ? ? 2 ? n and ( ) s2 = ?? ? i 1 ? ? 2 ? n And the solution becomes : x( t ) = C1 x( t ) = e ? ?? +i 1?? 2 ?? t ? ÷ n ? e? ??? nt x( t ) = e ??? nt x( t ) = e ??? nt ? ?i ? ? ?C1e? ? ? + C2 1?? 2 ?? nt ÷ ? ? ?? ?i 1?? 2 ?? t ? ÷ n ? e? + C2 ? ?i 1?? 2 ?? t ? ? ÷ n ? ? e? ? ? ? ( ) ( { { C cos ( 1 ? ? ? t ) + C sin ( 1 ? ? ? t ) } sin ( 1 ? ? ? t + ? ) or x( t ) = X e ( C1 + C2 ) cos x( t ) = Xe ??? nt ' 1 1 ? ? 2 ? nt + i ( C1 ? C2 ) sin 2 2 n n ' 2 2 1 ? ? 2?nt )} n 0 ???n t cos ( 1 ? ? 2 ? n t ? ?o 04:36:37 Where C’1, C’2; X, ? and Xo, ?o are arbitrary constant determined from initial conditions. ) 68. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 68 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping { ' x( t ) = e ???nt C1 cos • ( ) 1 ? ? 2 ?n t + C'2 sin ( 1 ? ? 2 ?n t )} For the initial conditions: x( t = 0 ) = x0 and & t = 0 ) = & 0 x( x Then ' C1 = x0 and C'2 = & 0 + ??n x0 x 1 ? ? 2?n Therefore the solution becomes x( t ) = e • ???n t ? ? ? x0 cos ? ? ( 2 ) 1 ? ? ?nt + x & 0 + ??n x0 2 1 ? ? ?n sin ( ) ? ? 1 ? ? ?nt ? ? ? 2 This represents a decaying (damped) harmonic motion with angular frequency ?(1-?2)?n also known as the damped natural frequency. The factor e -( ) causes the exponential decay. 04:36:37 69. 69 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping ?d = 2? ?d Xe ???nt Exponenti**all**y decaying harmonic – free SDoF vibration with viscous damping . 04:36:37 Underdamped oscillatory motion and has important engineering applications. 70. 70 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping x( t ) = Xe ???nt sin ( 1 ? ? 2 ?n t + ? ) or x( t ) = X 0 e ???nt cos ( 1 ? ? 2 ?nt ? ?o The cons tan ts ( X ,? ) and ( X 0 ,?0 ) representing the magnitude and phase become : X = X0 = ( ) ( ) ' C1 ' ? C1 ? ? = a tan ? ' ÷ ? C2 ? 04:36:37 2 + C'2 and 2 ? C'2 ? ?0 = a tan ? ? ' ÷ ? C1 ? ) 71. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 71 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping When ? = 1, c=cc , system is critic**all**y damped and the two roots to the eqn. of motion become: • s1 = s2 = ? cc = ??n 2m and solution is x( t ) = ( C1 + C2t )e ??nt Applying the initial conditions x( t = 0 ) = x0 and & t = 0 ) = & 0 yields x( x C1 = x0 C2 = & 0 + ?n x0 x The solution becomes : x( t ) = [ x0 + ( & 0 + ?n x0 ) t ] e ??nt x • As t?? , the exponential term diminished toward zero and depicts aperiodic motion 04:36:37 72. 72 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • When ? > 1, c>cc , system is overdamped and the two roots to the eqn. of motion are real and negative: ( = ( ?? ? ) ?1 ) ? < 0 s1 = ?? + ? 2 ? 1 ?n < 0 s2 ?2 n with s2 = s1 and the initial conditions x( t = 0 ) = x0 and & t = 0 ) = & 0 x( x the solution becomes : ? ?? + ? 2 ?1 ? x( t ) = C1e? where C1 = C2 = ?? t ÷ n ? ( + C2 ? ?? ? ? 2 ?1 ? e? ) x0?n ?? + ? 2 ? 1 + & 0 x 2?n ? 2 ? 1 ( ) ? x0?n ?? ? ? 2 ? 1 ? & 0 x 2?n ? 2 ? 1 04:36:37 Which shows aperiodic motion which diminishes exponenti**all**y with time. ?? t ÷ n ? 73. 73 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping Underdamped ( ? = 0 ) Overdamped ( ? > 1 ) Critic**all**y damped ( ? = 1 ) Underdamped ( ? < 1 ) 2? ?n 2? ?d Critic**all**y damped systems have lowest required damping for aperiodic motion and mass returns to equilibrium position in shortest possible time. 04:36:37 74. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping Example 1.2 1 0.8 -] 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 [ t n m e c a l p s i D 74 -0.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 04:36:37 Elapsed Time [s] 2.5 3 3.5 75. 75 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • Logarithmic decrement: Natural logarithm of ratio of two successive peaks (or troughs) in an exponenti**all**y decaying harmonic response. • • • Represents the rate of decay Used to determine damping constant from experimental data. Using the solution for underdamped systems: x1 X 0 e ???nt1 cos( ?d t1 ? ?0 ) = x2 X 0 e ???nt2 cos( ?d t2 ? ?0 ) Let t2 = t1 + ? d = t1 + x1 x2 2? then ?d cos( ?d t2 ? ?0 ) = cos( 2? + ?d t1 ? ?0 ) = cos( ?d t1 ? ?0 ) and x1 e ???nt1 = = e??n? d x2 e ???n ( t1 +? d ) Applying the natural ln on both sides, the log arithmic decrement ? is obtained : ?x ? 2? 2?? 2?? ? = ln ? 1 ÷ = ??n? d = ??n = = 04:36:37 ? x2 ? 1 ? ? 2 ?n 1 ? ? 2 ?d ?d t1 t2 76. 76 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • Logarithmic decrement: For low damping ( ? << 1 ) 14 ?x ? ? = ln ? 1 ÷ = 2?? ? x2 ? Valid for ? < .3 12 10 ? 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 ? 04:36:37 0.8 1 77. 77 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + viscous damping • Logarithmic decrement after n cycles: x1 • Since the period of oscillation is constant: x x x x = 1 2 3 .... m xm +1 x2 x3 x4 xm +1 xj Since = e?? n? d then x j +1 x1 x1 xm +1 ( ) ?? n? d m = e = em?? n? d The log arithmic decrement can therefore be obtained from a number m of successive decaying oscillations ?= 1 ? x1 ? ln ? m ? xm +1 ÷ ? 04:36:37 x2 Xm+1 78. 78 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • • • Coulomb or dry friction dampers are simple and convenient Occurs when components slide / rub Force proportional to normal force: F = µN F = µ mg for free ? s tan ding systems where µ is the coefficient of friction. • • Force acts in opposite direction to velocity and is independent of displacement and velocity. Consider SDOF system with dry friction: 04:36:37 Case 1. Case 2. 79. 79 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • • Case 1: Mass moves from left to right. x = positive and x’ is positive or x = negative and x’ is positive. The eqn. of motion is: ¬ 2nd order hom ogeneous DE mx = ?kx ? µ N or && mx + kx = ? µ N && For which the general solution is : x( t ) = A1 cos( ?n t ) + A2 sin( ?n t ) ? where the fre quency of vibration ?n is conditions of this portion of the cycle. • • µN k (1) k and A1 and A2 are constants dependent on the initial m Case 2: Mass moves from right to left. x = positive and x’ is negative or x = negative and x’ is negative. The eqn. of motion is: mx = ? kx + µ N or && mx + kx = µ N && For which the general solution is : µN x( t ) = A3 cos( ?n t ) + A4 sin( ?n t ) + k (2) k and A3 and A4 are constants dependent m 04:36:37 on the initial conditions of this portion of the cycle. where the fre quency of vibration ?n is again 80. 80 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • The term µN/k [m] is a constant representing the virtual displacement of the spring k under force µN. The equilibrium position oscillates between +µN/k and -µN/k 1 for each harmonic half cycle of motion. 04:36:37 81. 81 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • To find a more specific solution to the eqn. of motion we apply the simple initial conditions: x( t = 0 ) = x0 & t =0)=&0 x( x The motion starts from the extreme right ( ie. velocity is zero ) Substituting int o µN x( t ) = A3 cos( ?n t ) + A4 sin( ?n t ) + (2) k and & t ) = ? A3?n sin( ?n t ) + A4?n cos( ?n t ) + 0 x( gives µN A3 = x0 ? and A4 = 0 k Eqn.( 2 ) becomes µN ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? cos( ?n t ) + ( 2a ) valid for 0 ? t ? ? / ?n ? ÷ k ? k ? 04:36:37 and V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 82. 82 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping µN ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? ? ÷cos( ?n t ) + k ? k ? valid for 0 ? t ? ? / ?n = Initial displacement for next half cycle 04:36:37 83. 83 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • The displacement at ?/?n becomes the initial displacement for the next half cycle, x 1. ? ? ? ? µN ? µN 2µ N ? ? x1 = x ? t = = ? x0 ? cos( ? ) + = ? ? x0 ? ÷ ? ÷ ÷ k ? k k ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ? ? and the initial velocity & ( t = 0 ) is = & ? t = x x ÷ in eqn ( 2a ) ? ?n ? Substituting these initial conditions int o eqn.( 1) µN x( t ) = A1 cos( ?n t ) + A2 sin( ?n t ) ? ( 1) k and its derivative & t ) = ??n A1 sin( ?n t ) + ?n A2 cos( ?n t ) x( gives 3µ N and k such that eqn.( 1 ) becomes : A1 = x0 ? A2 = 0 3µ N ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? cos( ?n t ) ? ? ÷ k ? k ? 04:36:37 ( 1a ) valid for ? / ?n ? t ? ? 2 / ?n 84. 84 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping µN ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? valid for 0 ? t ? ? / ?n ? ÷cos( ?n t ) + k ? k ? 3µ N ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? valid for ? / ?n ? t ? ? 2 / ?n ? ÷cos( ?n t ) ? k ? k ? = Initial displacement for next half cycle 04:36:37 This method can be applied to successive half cycles until the motion stops. 85. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 85 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping During each half period ?/?n the reduction in magnitude (peak height) is 2µN/k • • Any two succesive peaks are related by: 4µ N ? xm = xm ?1 ? ? ? ÷ ? k ? • • The motion will stop when xn < µN/k The total number of half vibration cycles, r, is obtained from: 2µ N ? ? µ N ? x0 ? r ? ? ÷? ? ÷ ? k ? ? k ? or ? µN ? x0 ? ? ? ? k ? r?? ? ? 2µ N ? ? ?? ÷ ?? k ?? ? ? 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 86. 86 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping µN ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? valid for 0 ? t ? ? / ?n ? ÷cos( ?n t ) + k ? k ? 3µ N ? µN x( t ) = ? x0 ? valid for ? / ?n ? t ? ? 2 / ?n ? ÷cos( ?n t ) ? k ? k ? Final position = Initial displacement for next half cycle 04:36:37 87. 87 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Free single DoF vibration + Coulomb damping • Important features of Coulomb damping: 1. The equation of motion is nonlinear (cf. linear for viscous damping) 2. Coulomb damping does not alter the system’s natural frequency (cf. damped natural frequency for viscous damping). 3. The motion is always periodic (cf. overdamped for viscous systems) 4. Amplitude reduces linearly (cf. exponential decay for viscous systems) 5. System eventu**all**y comes to rest – number of vibration cycles finite (cf. sustained vibration with viscous damping) 6. The final position is the permanent displacement (not equilibrium) equivalent to the friction force (cf. approaches zero for viscous systems) 04:36:37 88. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 88 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration • • External energy supplied to system as applied force or imposed motion (displacement, velocity or acceleration) • Harmonic forcing function takes the form: This section deals only with harmonic excitation which results in harmonic response (cf. steady-state or transient response from non-harmonic excitation). F( t ) = F0 ei ( ? t +? ) • • • • or F( t ) = F0 cos( ?t + ? ) or F( t ) = F0 sin( ?t + ? ) Where F0 is the amplitude, ? the frequency and ? the phase angle. The response of a linear system subjected to harmonic excitation is also harmonic. The response amplitude depends on the ratio of the excitation frequency to the natural frequency. Some “common” harmonic forcing functions are: • • Rotating machine / element with (large) residual imbalance • • Vehicle travelling on pavement corrugations or sinusoidal surfaces Regular shedding of vortices caused by laminar flow across slender structures (VIV) – ie: chimneys, bridges, overhead cables, mooring cables, tethers, pylons… Structures excited by regular (very narrow banded) ocean / water waves 04:36:37 89. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 89 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration • Equation of motion when a force is applied to a viscously damped SDOF system is: mx + cx + kx = F ( t ) && & • ¬ non hom ogeneous differential eqn. The general solution to a nonhomogeneous DE is the sum if the homogeneous solution x h(t) and the particular solution xp(t). • The homogeneous solution represents the solution to the free SDOF which is known to decay over time for **all** conditions (underdamped, critic**all**y damped and overdamped). • The general solution therefore reduces to the particular solution x p(t) which represents the steady-state vibration which exists as long as the forcing function is applied. 04:36:37 90. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 90 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) damped single DoF vibration • Example of solution to harmonic**all**y excited damped SDOF system: Homogenous solution: decaying vibration @ natural frequency Particular solution: steady-state vibration @ excitation frequency Complete solution 04:36:37 91. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 91 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • Let the forcing function acting on the mass of an undamped SDOF system be: F( t ) = F0 cos( ?t ) • The eqn. of motion reduces to: mx + kx = F0 cos( ?t ) && • Where the homogeneous solution is: xh ( t ) = C1 cos( ?n t ) + C2 sin( ?n t ) where ?n = k / m • As the excitation is harmonic, the particular solution is also harmonic with the same frequency: x p ( t ) = X cos( ?t ) • Substituting xp(t) in the eqn. of motion and solving for X gives: X= • F0 k ? m? 2 The complete solution becomes 04:36:37 x( t ) = xh ( t ) + x p ( t ) = C1 cos( ?nt ) + C 2 sin( ?nt ) + F0 k ? m? 2 cos( ?t ) 92. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 92 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • Applying the initial conditions x( t = 0 ) = x0 C1 = x0 ? • and F0 & t =0)=&0 x( x and k ? m? 2 C2 = gives: &0 x ?n The complete solution becomes: ?& ? F0 ? x F0 ? x( t ) = ? x0 ? cos( ?nt ) + ? 0 ÷sin( ?n t ) + cos( ?t ) ÷ 2 2 ?n ? ? k ? m? ? k ? m? ? • The maximum amplitude of the steady-state solution can be written as: X = ? st • 1 2 ?? ? 1? ? ÷ ? ?n ? F where ? st = 0 k X/?st is the ratio of the dynamic to the static amplitude and is known as the amplification factor or amplification ratio and is dependent on the frequency ratio r = ?/?n. 04:36:37 93. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 93 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • When ?/?n < 1 the denominator of the steady- X / ? st state amplitude is positive and the amplification factor increases as ? approaches the natural frequency ?n. The response is in-phase with the excitation. • When ?/?n > 1 the denominator of the steadystate amplitude is negative an the amplification factor is redefined as: X 1 = ? st ? ? ? 2 ?? ÷ ?1 ? n? and the steady ? state response becomes : x p ( t ) = ? X cos( ?t ) which shows that the response is out-of-phase with the excitation and decreases (? zero ) as ? increases (? ?) 04:36:37 r= ? ?n 94. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 94 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • When ?/?n < 1 the denominator of the steadystate amplitude is positive and the amplification factor increases as ? approaches the natural frequency ?n. The response is in-phase with the excitation. • When ?/?n > 1 the denominator of the steadystate amplitude is negative an the amplification factor is redefined as: X 1 = ? st ? ? ? 2 ?? ÷ ?1 ? n? and the steady ? state response becomes : x p ( t ) = ? X cos( ?t ) which shows that the response is out-of-phase with the excitation and decreases (? zero ) as ? increases (? ?) 04:36:37 X / ? st V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 95. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 95 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • When ?/?n = 1 the denominator of the steadystate amplitude is zero an the response becomes infinitely large. This condition when ?=?n is known as resonance. X / ? st 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 96. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 96 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • The complete solution ?& ? F0 ? x F0 ? x( t ) = ? x0 ? cos( ?n t ) + ? 0 ÷sin( ?n t ) + cos( ?t ) 2÷ 2 ? k ? m? ? k ? m? ? ?n ? can be written as: x( t ) = Acos( ?n t + ? ) + x( t ) = Acos( ?n t + ? ) ? ? st 2 cos( ?t ) for ? / ?n < 1 2 cos( ?t ) for ? / ?n > 1 ?? ? 1? ? ÷ ? ?n ? ? st ?? ? 1? ? ÷ ? ?n ? where A and ? are functions of x0 and & 0 as before. x • The complete solution is a sum of two cosines with frequencies corresponding to the natural and forcing (excitation) frequencies. 04:36:37 97. 97 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. ? /?n < 1 ? /?n > 1 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 98. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 98 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. • When the excitation frequency ? is close but not exactly equal to the natural frequency ?n beating may occur. • Letting the initial conditions x0= x’0 =0 , the complete solution: ?& ? F0 ? x F0 ? x( t ) = ? x0 ? cos( ?n t ) + ? 0 ÷sin( ?nt ) + cos( ?t ) 2÷ 2 ?n ? ? k ? m? ? k ? m? ? reduces to : x( t ) = ( F0 / m ) ( ?n2 ? ? 2 ) [ c os( ?nt ) ? cos( ?t )] = ( F0 / m ) ? ? ? ? + ?n ? ? ? ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? 2 sin ?? ÷t ? ×sin ? ? ÷t ? ? 2 2 ? ( ?n ? ? ) ? ?? 2 ? ? If we let the excitation frequency be slightly less than the natural frequency: ?n ? ? = 2? where ? is a sm**all** positive number. Then ?n ? ? and ?n + ? = 2? therefore : 2 ( ? n ? ? ) ( ?n + ? ) = ? n ? ? 2 = 4 ? ? 2 Substituting for ?n ? ? , ?n + ? and ?n ? ? 2 in the complete solution yields : 04:36:37 x( t ) = ( F0 / m ) sin ( ? t ) ×sin ( ?t ) ( 2?? ) ?? 2 ? ?? 99. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 99 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – undamped. x( t ) = • ( F0 / m ) sin ? t ×sin ?t ( ) ( ) ( 2?? ) Since ? is sm**all**, sin(? t) has a long period. The solution can then be considered as harmonic motion with a principal frequency ? an a variable amplitude equal to X(t ) = 04:36:37 ( F0 / m ) sin ? t ( ) ( 2?? ) 100. 100 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Steady-state Solution • The equation of motion of a SDOF system with viscous damping is: If the forcing function is harmonic: F( t ) = F0 cos( ?t ) mx + cx + kx = F0 cos( ?t ) && & • The steady-state response is given by the particular solution which is also expected to be harmonic: x p ( t ) = X cos( ?t ? ? ) where the amplitude X and the phase angle ? are to be det er min ed 04:36:37 101. 101 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Substituting xp into the steady-state eqn. of motion yields: ( ) X ? k ? m? 2 cos( ?t ? ? ) ? c? sin( ?t ? ? )? = F0 cos( ?t ) ? ? applying the trigonometric relationships : cos( ?t ? ? ) = cos( ?t )cos( ? ) + sin( ?t ) sin( ? ) sin( ?t ? ? ) = sin( ?t )cos( ? ) ? cos( ?t ) sin( ? ) we obtain : ( ) X ?( k ? m? 2 ) sin( ? ) ? c? cos( ? )? = 0 ? ? X ? k ? m? 2 cos( ? ) + c? sin( ? )? = F0 ? ? which gives : X= F0 ( ) ? 2? k ? m? ? ( c? ) ? ? ? ? for the particular solution 2 2 x p ( t ) = X cos( ?t ? ? ) 04:36:37 1 and 2 ? c? ? ? = a tan ? ÷ ? k ? m? 2 ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 102. 102 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Alternatively, the amplitude and phase can be written in terms of the frequency ratio r = ?/?n and the damping coefficient ?: X = ? st 1 ?? 2? ?? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?1 ? ? ÷ ? + ? 2? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ?n ? ? ?? ? ? ?? ? 2 ?2 ? ? ? ? 2? ÷ ?n ÷ ? = a tan ? = 2÷ ? ?1? ? ? ? ÷ ? ?? ÷ ÷ ? ? n? ? 04:36:37 1 = 2 ? 2? r ? a tan ? ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? 1 ?? 2? ? ?1 ? r ? + [ 2? r ] ? ? ? 2 ?2 1 2 103. 103 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. X = ? st 04:36:37 1 1 ?? 2? 2 2 2 ? ?1 ? r ? + [ 2? r ] ? ? ? ? ? 2? r ? ? = a tan ? ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 104. 104 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • The magnification ratio at **all** frequencies is reduced with increased damping. • The effect of damping on the magnification ratio is greatest at or near resonance. • The magnification ratio approaches 1 as the frequency ratio approaches 0 (DC) • The magnification ratio approaches 0 as the frequency ratio approaches ? • For 0 < ? < 1/ ?2 the magnification ratio maximum occurs at r = ?(1 - 2?2) or ? = ?n ?(1 - 2?2) which is lower than both the undamped natural frequency ?n and the damped natural frequency ?d = ? n ?(1 - ?2) • When r = ?(1 - 2?2) Mmax= 1/[2? ?(1 - ?2)] ? if Mmax can be measured, the damping ratio can be determined. • • 04:36:37 When ? = 1/?2 dM/dr = 0 at r = 0. When ? > 1/?2 M decreases monotonic**all**y with increasing frequency. 105. 105 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • For damped systems (? > 0) when r < 1 the phase angle is less than 90o and response lags the excitation and when r >1 the phase angle is greater than 90 o and the response leads the excitation (approaches 180 o for large frequency ratios.. • 04:36:37 For undamped systems (? = 0) the phase angle is 0o (response in phase with excitation) for r<1 and 180 o (response out of phase with excitation) for r>1. For damped systems (? > 0) when r =1 the phase lag is always 90o. 106. 106 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Complete Solution • The complete solution is the sum of the homogeneous solution xh(t) and the particular solution xp(t): x( t ) = X 0 e ???nt cos( ?d t ? ?0 ) + X cos( ?t ? ? ) where ?d = ?n 1 ? ? 2 , X and ? are given as before, and X 0 and ?0 are det er min ed from the initial conditions 04:36:37 107. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 107 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Quality Factor & Bandwidth • • When damping is sm**all** (? < 0.05) the peak magnification ratio corresponds with resonance ( ? =?n). The value of the magnification ratio (Quality factor or Q factor) becomes: ? X ? 1 1 Q=? = = ÷ 1 2? ? ? st ?? =?n ? 2 ? 2 2? 2 ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ?1 ? ? ÷ ? + ? 2? ? ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ?n ? ? ?? ? ? ? • The points where the magnification ratio f**all**s below Q/?2, are c**all**ed the half power points R 1 and R2. (Power is proportional to amplitude squared: Power = Fv = cv2 = c(dx/dt)2 • The difference between the half power frequencies is c**all**ed the bandwidth. 1 2? Q 2 The Quality factor Q can be used to estimate the equivalent viscous damping of systems. • Q= 04:36:37 Bandwidth R1 1 R2 108. 108 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • The values of the half power frequencies are determined as follows: ? X ? 1 Q 1 = = = ?? ÷ 2 2 2 2? ? st ? 2 ? ? ? ?2 ? ? ?? ?1 ? ? ÷ ? + ? 2? ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? ?n ? ? ? In terms of the frequency ratio r : r 4 ? r 2 ( 2 ? 4? 2 ) + ( 1 ? 8? 2 ) = 0 Which, when solved gives : r12 = 1 ? 2? 2 ? 2? 1 + ? 2 and 2 r2 = 1 ? 2? 2 + 2? 1 + ? 2 When ? is sm**all** , ? 2 is negligible and the solutions can be reduced to : 2 2 ?? ? r12 = R1 = ? 1 ÷ ; 1 ? 2? ? ?n ? ? ( ) 2 and 2 2 2 2 2 2 ?2 ? ?1 = R2 ? R1 ?n ; 4??n 04:36:37 2 2 ?? ? r2 = R2 = ? 2 ÷ ; 1 + 2? ? ?n ? 109. 109 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. ?2 + ?1 2 2 = ?n and ?2 ? ?1 = ( ?2 + ?1 ) ( ?2 ? ?1 ) , 2 the bandwidth ?? = ?2 ? ?1 can be written as : Since 2 2 2 ?2 ? ?1 4??n ?? = ; ; 2??n ?2 + ?1 2?n The qualily factor Q can then be exp ressed in terms of the natural frequency and bandwidth : Q; ? 1 ; n 2? ?? 04:36:37 110. 110 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Complex notation. Rec**all** that a harmonic function may expressed as follows: F( t ) = F0 cos( ?t + ? ) • • • = F0 sin( ?t + ? ) F0 ei( ?t +? ) If the harmonic forcing function is expressed in complex form: F = F0 ei?t The equation of motion for a damped SDOF system becomes: mx + cx + kx = F0 ei?t && & The actual excitation function is real and is represented by the real part of the complex function. Consequently, the steady-state response is also real and is represented by the real part of the complex particular solution which takes the form: x p ( t ) = Xei?t Therefore : & p ( t ) = i? Xei?t x • = and && p ( t ) = ?? Xei?t x Substituting in the eqn. of motion gives: ? m? 2 Xei?t + ic? Xei?t + kXei?t = F0 ei?t 04:36:37 111. 111 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • The response amplitude becomes: X= F0 ¬ X / F0 is c**all**ed the RECEPTANCE ( Dynamic compliance ) ? k ? m? 2 + ic? ? ? ? multiplying the numerator & deno min ator on the RHS by k ? m? 2 ? ic? and separating real and imaginary components : ( ) ( ) ? ? k ? m? 2 c? ? X = F0 ? ?i 2 2 ? ? k ? m? 2 + c 2? 2 k ? m? 2 + c 2? 2 ? ? ? ? ( ) ( ) e ?i? where y applying the complex relationships : x + iy = Aei? where A = x 2 + y 2 and ? = a tan ? ? ? ÷ ?x? The magnitude of the response can be written as : X= F0 ( 1 ) ? ? 2 k ? m? + c 2? 2 ? ? ? ? And the steady ? state solution becomes : xp( t ) = 04:36:37 2 2 F0 ( ? ? k ? m? ? ) 2 2 ? + c 2? 2 ? ? 1 ei( ?t ?? ) 2 ? c? ? ? = a tan ? ÷ ? k ? m? 2 ? 112. 112 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • As before the response amplitude: X= ( F0 ) ? k ? m? 2 + ic? ? ? ? can be written in terms of the frequency ratio r and the damping ratio ? : kX 1 = ? H( i? ) ¬ Complex Frequency Re sponse Function ( FRF ) F0 1 ? r 2 + i2? r The magnitude of H( i? ) is given by : H( i? ) = kX = F0 1 ( 1? r ) 2 2 which is the same as the magnification ratio M : + ( 2? r ) 2 It can be shown that the complex FRF and its magnitude are related by : H( i? ) = H( i? ) e ?i? where e ?i? = cos ? + i sin ? and ? 2? r ? ? = a tan ? ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? The steady ? state response can therefore be exp ressed as : F x p ( t ) = 0 H( i? ) ei( ?t ?? ) k • Measurements of the magnitude FRF can be used to experiment**all**y determine the values of m, c and k. 04:36:37 113. 113 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • When the excitation function is described by: F( t ) = F0 cos( ?t ) The steady-state response is given by the real part of the solution: xp( t ) = F0 ( ) 1 ei( ?t ?? ) = 2 ? ? 2 k ? m? 2 + c 2? 2 ? ? ? ? F = Re ? 0 H( i? )ei?t ? ?k ? ? ? F = Re ? 0 H( i? ) ei( ?t ?? ) ? ?k ? ? ? • • F0 ( ? k ? m? 2 ? ? Conversely, when the excitation function is described by: ) 2 ? + c 2? 2 ? ? 1 cos( ?t ? ? ) 2 F( t ) = F0 sin( ?t ) The steady-state response is given by the imaginary part of the solution: xp( t ) = F0 ( ) 1 2 ? ? 2 k ? m? 2 + c 2? 2 ? ? ? ? F = Im ? 0 H( i? )ei?t ? ?k ? ? ? ? F0 H( i? ) ei( ?t ?? ) ? = 04:36:37 Im ?k ? ? ? ei( ?t ?? ) = F0 ( ? k ? m? 2 ? ? ) 2 ? + c 2? 2 ? ? 1 sin( ?t ? ? ) 2 114. 114 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Complex Vector Notation of Harmonic Motion: Harmonic excitation and response can be represented in the complex plane Steady ? state displacement : F x p ( t ) = 0 H( i? ) ei( ? t ?? ) k Steady ? state velocity : F & p ( t ) = i? 0 H( i? ) ei( ? t ?? ) = i? x p ( t ) x k Steady ? state acceleration : F0 H( i? ) ei( ? t ?? ) = ?? 2 x p ( t ) k Since i and ? 1 respectively can be written as : 2 x && p ( t ) = ( i? ) ? ?? ? ?? ? i2 i = cos ? ÷+ i sin ? ÷ = e ?2? ?2? • and ? 1 = cos ( ? ) + i sin ( ? ) = ei? It can be seen that: • • The velocity leads the displacement by 90 o and is multiplied by ?. The acceleration leads the displacement by 180 o and is multiplied by ?2. 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 115. 115 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Complex Vector Notation of Harmonic Motion: xp( t ) = 04:36:37 F0 H( i? ) ei( ? t ?? ) k x & p ( t ) = i? x p ( t ) x && p ( t ) = ?? 2 x p ( t ) 116. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 116 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • • Response due to base motion (harmonic) • At any time, the length of the spring is x – y and the relative velocity between the two ends of the damper is x’ – y’. • The equation of motion is: In this case, the excitation is provided by the imposed harmonic motion of the supporting base. The displacement of the base about a neutral position is denoted by y(t) and the response of the mass from its static equilibrium position by x(t). mx + c( & ? & ) + k( x ? y ) = 0 && x y If y( t ) = Y sin( ?t ) the eqn.of motion becomes : mx + cx + kx = cy + ky && & & k( x ? y ) = c?Y cos( ?t ) + kY sin( ?t ) = A sin( ?t ? ? ) c? where A = Y k 2 + ( c? )2 and ? = a tan ? ? ? ? ÷ ? k ? • The applied displacement has the same effect of applying a harmonic force of magnitude A to the mass. 04:36:37 c( & ? &y ) x y( t ) = Y sin( ? t ) 117. 117 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • The steady-state response of the mass is given by the particular solution x p(t): xp( t ) = Y k 2 + ( c? )2 ( 1 ) sin( ?t ? ?1 ? ? ) 2 ? ? 2 k ? m? 2 + c 2? 2 ? ? ? ? c? ? c? ? where ? = a tan ? ? ? and ?1 = a tan ? ? ÷ ÷ ? k ? ? k ? m? 2 ? The solution can be simplified to : x p ( t ) = X sin( ?t ? ? ) where ? ? 2 2 X ? k + ( c? ) ? =? Y 2 2 2 2? +c ? ? ? k ? m? ? ? ( ) 1 2 ? ? 2 1 + ( 2? r ) ? =? ? 2 2 2? + ( 2? r ) ? ? 1? r ? ? ( ) 1 2 ¬ Displacement Transmissibility and ? ? ? ? mc? 3 2? r 3 ? ÷ = a tan ? ? = a tan ÷ ? k k ? m? 2 + ( c? )2 ÷ 1 + ( 4? 2 ? 1)r 2 ? ? ? ? 04:36:37 ( ) 118. 118 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. ? ? 2 X ? 1 + ( 2? r ) ? =? Y 2 2 2? + ( 2? r ) ? ? 1? r ? ? ( 04:36:37 ) 1 2 and ? ? 2? r 3 ? = a tan ? ÷ 1 + ( 4? 2 ? 1 )r 2 ? ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 119. 119 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Characteristics of the displacement transmissibility: • The transmissibility is 1 when r = 0 (DC) and close to 1 when r is sm**all**. • For undamped systems (? = 0), Td ? ? at resonance (r = 1) • For **all** damping values Td<1 for r >?2 and Td = 1 for r = ?2 • For r <?2 Td is inversely proportional to ? • For r >?2 Td is proportional to ? 04:36:37 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 120. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 120 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Transmitted Force The force transmitted to the base/support is caused by the reaction of the spring and damper: F = k( x ? y ) + c( & ? & ) = ? mx x y && Since the steady ? state ( particular ) solution is x p ( t ) = X sin( ?t ? ? ) ,F can be written as : F = m? 2 X sin( ? t ? ? ) = FT sin( ?t ? ? ) • Where FT is the amplitude of the transmitted force and is given by: 1 2 ? 2 FT 1 + ( 2? r ) 2? =r ? ¬ Force Transmissibility 2 2 2? kY ? ( 1 ? r ) + ( 2? r ) ? • Note that the transmitted force is always in–phase with the motion of the mass x(t): k( x ? y ) c( & ? &y ) x y( t ) = Y sin( ? t ) 04:36:37 121. 121 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. ? 1 + ( 2? r ) ? FT = r2 ? ? kY ( 1 ? r 2 ) + ( 2? r )2 ? ? 2 04:36:37 1 2 122. 122 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Relative Motion If z = x – y represents the motion of the mass relative to the base, the eqn. of motion: k( x ? y ) mx + c( & ? & ) + k( x ? y ) = 0 && x y can be written as : mz + cz + kz = ? my = m? 2Y sin( ?t ) && && & The ( steady ? state ) solution of which is : z( t ) = m? 2Y sin( ?t ? ?1 ) ( ) ? 2? 2 2 k ? m? + ( c? ) ? ? ? ? where the amplitude Z is given by : Z= m? 2Y ( ) ? 2? k ? m? + ( c? ) ? ? ? ? and the phase ?1 is given by : 2 2 1 1 2 = Z sin( ?t ? ?1 ) =Y 2 c( & ? &y ) x r2 ( ? ? 1? r ? ? c? ? ? 2? r ? ?1 = a tan ? = a tan ? ÷ ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? ? k ? m? 2 ? 04:36:37 ) 2 2 2? + ( 2? r ) ? ? 1 2 123. 123 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Relative Motion Z = Y r2 ( ? ? 1? r ? ) 2? + ( 2? r ) ? ? ? 2? r ? ?1 = a tan ? ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? 04:36:37 2 2 1 2 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 124. 124 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Rotating Imbalance Excitation With the horizontal components cancelled the vertical component of the excitation is: 2 F( t ) = me? sin( ? t ) The eqn. of motion is : Mx + cx + kx = me? 2 sin( ? t ) && & and the steady ? state solution becomes : ? me ? ? ?2 ? i( ? t ?? ) ? x p ( t ) = X sin( ? t ? ? ) = Im ? ? ÷ H( i? ) e ? M ? ?n ? ? ? ? The response amplitude and phase are given by : X = 2 me? 2 ( ) 1 me ? ? ? MX = ? ? ÷ H( i? ) or me = M ? n? ? 2? k ? M? + ( c? ) ? ? ? ? ? c? ? ? 2? r ? ? = a tan ? = a tan ? ÷ ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? ? k ? M? 2 ? 04:36:37 2 2 2 r2 ( ? ? 1? r ? ) 2 2 2? + ( 2? r ) ? ? 1 = r 2 H( i? ) 2 125. 125 **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • Rotating Imbalance Excitation MX = me r2 ( ? ? 1? r ? ) 2 2 = r 2 H( i? ) ? 2? r ? ? = a tan ? ÷ ? 1 ? r2 ? 04:36:37 1 ? 2 + ( 2? r ) 2 ? ? V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 126. **Mechanical** **Vibrations** – Single Degree-of-Freedom systems 126 V. Rouillard © 2003 - 2013 Forced (harmonic**all**y excited) single DoF vibration – Damped. • • Forced Vibration with Coulomb Damping The equation of motion for a SDOF with Coulomb damping subjected to a harmonic force is: Mx + kx ± µ N = F0 sin( ? t ) && • • Solution complicated. • If µN << F0 motion of mass m will approximate harmonic motion • When µN << F0 an approximate solution to eqn. of motion may be used to determine equivalent viscous If µN is large cf F0, motion of mass m is discontinuous damping ratio. • • This is achieved by equating dissipated energy for both cases. For Coulomb damping, the energy dissipated during a cycle of amplitude X is: ?W = 4 ( µ NX ) ? 4 quarter cycles • For viscous damping, the energy dissipated during a cycle of amplitude X is: ?W = 2? / ? ? Fv dt = t =0 = ? ceq? X 2 04:36:37 2? / ? ? t =0 2 2? dx ceq ? ? dt = ? ceq X 2? cos 2 ( ?t ) d(

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